从这里开始

请确保你的系统已联入互联网。如有困难请参考HOW-TO连接到互联网或到论坛寻求帮助。
打开终端。单击主菜单中的“应用程序 – 附件 – 终端”。
修改更新服务器列表。请在终端中执行下面的两条命令:
sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list_backup
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list
注意:接下来在打开的文本编辑器中,把你看到的内容全部删掉,访问 我们推荐的源页面。在那里里请选择一组对于你来说速度最快
的更新服务器列表。粘贴到你所看到的窗口中。
对电信/网通用户,推荐将欧洲官方源服务器粘贴到最后
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ Intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
推荐所有用户加入 ubuntu-cn 源(从以下两个中选择一个即可)*此处暂时用hardy*
deb http://archive.ubuntu.org.cn/ubuntu-cn/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu-cn/ hardy main restricted universe multiverse
4.更新软件包列表。执行下面的命令:
sudo apt-get update
5.安装系统更新
打开“系统->系统管理->更新管理器”,安装更新。完成后若系统提示重新启动,请重新启动系统。</p>

语言支持对话框[编辑] 设置中文环境
重要:继续之前请确定本文前面的操作你都完成了
单击主菜单中的“系统(System) –> 系统管理(Administration) –> 语言支持(language support)”。
在“支持的语言”列表中找到“汉语(Chinese)”,在右端打上勾。同时将默认语言修改为“汉语(Chinese)”并勾选“启用复杂

字符输入支持(Enable support to enter complex characters)”,点击确定按钮。
Ubuntu 这时会下载并安装语言包。安装完毕之后,当你注销后重新登录,界面就变成中文的了。
如果你喜欢用 Adobe Reader 来阅读 pdf 文档,可在官网下载或者本地下载
设置文档查看器 Evince 的中文支持:
sudo apt-get install xpdf-chinese-simplified xpdf-chinese-traditional poppler-data
[编辑] 安装硬件驱动</p>

硬件支持菜单 如左图打开 “系统->系统管理->硬件驱动”。Ubuntu 自动开始查找可用驱动程序,选中你需要启用的硬件驱动程序(

如显卡驱动),Ubuntu将自动为你安装。完装完成后,请按系统提示重启操作系统。
[编辑] 设置 Firefox
安装Flash插件
sudo apt-get install adobe-flashplugin
另一种方法
wget http://ubuntu:[email protected]/home/dbzhang800/wiki/install_flash_player_10_linux.deb
sudo dpkg -i install_flash_player_10_linux.deb
关于firefox的插件及其他设置,请参考Firefox常用扩展插件
[编辑] 设置QQ
在 腾讯官方 http://im.qq.com/qq/linux/download.shtml 下载 deb 安装包后,双击即可安装
[编辑] 多媒体应用环境设置
推荐能连接国外网的用户加入Medibuntu源,输入命令
sudo wget http://www.medibuntu.org/sources.list.d/intrepid.list -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring && sudo apt-get update
其他用户要确保已加入ubuntu-cn源
安装多媒体解码器,输入命令
Xine多媒体引擎解码器
sudo apt-get install libxine1-ffmpeg libxine1-all-plugins libxine1-plugins w32codecs gcc-3.3-base libstdc++5
Gstreamer多媒体引擎解码器
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-pitfdll gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-
multiverse gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse gstreamer0.10-esd
DVD影碟功能支持
sudo apt-get install libdvdnav4 libdvdread3 libdvdcss2
配置电影播放器
sudo apt-get remove totem-mozilla -y
sudo apt-get install smplayer smplayer-themes mozilla-mplayer
更多关于电影播放器 (Totem-xine) 的设置问题请参考Xine前端播放器设置问题
配置音乐播放器,输入命令
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mpegdemux gstreamer0.10-gnonlin libflashsupport
你可能还喜欢音乐播放器 Audacious、xmms、bmp,视频播放器 MPlayer 和 RealPlayer
[编辑] 设置工具软件
安装词典软件
星际译王 (stardict) 是 Linux 下类似于金山词霸的辞典软件。
如需给 stardict 添加更多的词库或真人发音,请访问星际译王
准备基本编译工具,输入命令
sudo apt-get install build-essential autoconf automake1.9 cvs subversion
编译所需软件时使用的开发库请参考该软件的相关文档。可选设置中提供了几个最基础的开发库。
安装压缩工具
安装rar、7z、cab格式支持,输入命令
sudo apt-get install unrar p7zip-full cabextract
大功告成,现在我们的系统已经能很好的工作了。请注销重新进入桌面!
很好,对Ubuntu系统的基本设置,你已经完成。不过这些设置对于你来说远远不够,请参看热门设置条目继续对您的系统进行微调,
当然热门设置里的内容不是所有人必须要做的。请针对自己的情况有选择的操作。
推荐的源页面
**********************************************************************
Archive.ubuntu.com更新服务器(欧洲,此为官方源,电信网通用户使用):
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Ubuntu.cn99.com更新服务器(江苏省常州市电信,推荐电信用户使用):
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Mirrors.shlug.org更新服务器(电信服务器,Ubuntu China Official Mirror, maintained by Shanghai Linux User Group):
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
Mirror.lupaworld.com更新服务器(浙江省杭州市双线服务器):
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.lupaworld.com/ubuntu intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
厦门大学更新服务器(教育网服务器):
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src ftp://ubuntu.realss.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
成都市 电子科技大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.uestc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
== 如果无法解析uestc.edu.cn域名,请使用以下地址 ==
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.dormforce.net/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
上海市上海交通大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ftp.sjtu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
中国科学技术大学更新服务器(教育网,推荐校园网和网通用户使用):
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main multiverse restricted universe
中国台湾 台湾大学更新服务器(推荐网通用户使用,电信PING平均响应速度41MS。强烈推荐此源,比较完整,较少出现同步问题):
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://ubuntu.csie.ntu.edu.tw/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
mirror.rootguide.org更新服务器(上海市 电信):
deb http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
deb-src http://mirror.rootguide.org/ubuntu/ intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
台湾的官方源速度也相当不错,有时甚至快于内地的:
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://tw.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu intrepid-proposed main restricted universe multiverse</p>

转自 chinaunix
原文链接:http://blog.chinaunix.net/u2/82549/showart.php?id=1333440